Classical mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with the motion of bodies in accordance with the general principles by Isaac Newton's laws of mechanics. Classical mechanics describes the motion of objects larger than a molecule and smaller than a planet, close to room temperature and going at speeds significantly slower than the speed of light. Classical mechanics gives accurate results as long as it is limited to large objects and the speeds less than the speed of light.
Classical mechanics Glossary
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- Abrasion - The destruction of a material caused by scraping or rubbing against a rough, hard surface.
- Abrasion resistance - The ability to withstand scuffing, scratching, rubbing or deterioration due to physical contact.
- Abrasive - A material that is able to remove the surface of another material.
- Absolute roughness - A measure of the roughness of the inside of a flowing pipe.
- Absolute vacuum - Contains no matter and can not be achieved.
- Acceleration - The rate of change of velocity. Whenever a mass experiences a force, an acceleration is acting.
- Acceleration due to gravity - See gravitational acceleration
- Acceleration of gravity - See gravitational acceleration
- Affinity laws - Express the mathematical relationship between the several variables involved in pump performance.
- Angular acceleration - The rate at which the angle velocity changes with respect to time.
- Angular deflection - When a flex connector is bent on it's centerline. One end of the hose assembly is deflected or bent with the other end remaining parallel.
- Angular displacement - The angle through which a body moves in a circular path.
Angular momentum - How much an object is rotating around a fixed point.
- Angular momentum of an object with linear momentum - The porportion of the average net torque and the time interval the torque is applied to.
- Angular velocity - , abbreviated as \(\omega\) (Greek symbol omega) or \(v_a\), also called angular speed, is the speed that an object moves through an angle, θ. The calculation below calculates ω but does not calculate the relative velocity of a point as it moves throughout the curve.
- Angular speed - See angular velocity
API gravity - If a fluids API gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on water; if less than 10, it is heavier and sinks.
- Applied force - Can come from different types of forces, one of them could be Newton's Second Law.
- Atmospheric pressure - The pressure exerted upon the earth's surface by the air because of the gravitational attraction of the earth.
- Average acceleration - The change of velocity over an elapsed amount of time. Whereas, instantaneous accleration is the change of velocity at a specific point in time.
- Average angular acceleration - The average rate at which the angle velocity changes with respect to time.
- Average angular velocity change in velocity - When an object makes changes in its angular velocity at different times that is an average angular velocity of any given velocities.
- Average velovity change in velovity - When an object make changes in its velocity at different times that is an average velocity of any given velocities.
- Axial deflection - When a flex connector is compressed or stretched on it's centerline which usually occurs from the change in temperature.
- Axial force - The force acting parallel to the longitudinal x-axis.
Axial stiffness - The ratio of the axlal load to axial deflection. An axial load happens when a force is applied parallel to the axis of another object.
- Breakaway torque - The torque necessary to put into reverse rotation a bolt that has not been tightened.
- Breakloose torque - The torque required to effect reverse rotation when a pre-stressed threaded assembly is loosened.
- Centripetal acceleration - The change in the velocity, which is a vector, either in speed or direction as an object makes its way around a circular path.
- Change in angular momentum - The porportion of the average net torque and the time interval the torque is applied to.
- Characteristic length - The scale of a physical system.
- Characteristic velocity - Measure the effectiveness of the combustion of a rocket engine at high temperature and pressure, seperate from nozzle performance.
- Circular velocity - The velocity at which an object moves around a circle with a given radius.
- Concurrent force - All of the forces act at the same point.
- Constant acceleration - The constant rate in a straight line at which the velocity changes with respect to time.
- Constant angular acceleration - An object is the constant rate at which the angle velocity changes with respect to time.
- Coplannar parallel force - The forces can be in the same or opposite direction and are on the same plane.
- Cylinder axial stress - The longitudinal stress parallel to the axis along a cylinder or pipe having both ends closed due to internal pressure.
- Cylinder hoop stress - The circumference stress in a cylinder of pipe having both ends closed due to internal pressure.
Deflection - The change in the position of something from zero or from its normal position.
Deformation - Measured by how much an object is deformed from its origional dimensions.
Degradation - A deleterious change in the physical properties evidenced by impairment of these properties.
- Deionization - The process which removes soluble matter from water by by ion exchange using natural or synthetic resins.
- Density - The ratio of the amount of matter in an object compared to its volume.
Density of an ideal gas - Greatly affected by pressure.
- Density of material due to temperature -
- Diffusion - The spread of gases, liquids, or solids from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
- Displacement - The change in position.
Displacement power - The amount of power required to displace an object a certain distance over time with a known force.
- Drag coefficient - See air resistance
- Efficiency - Expressed in percentage and always less than 100%.
- Elastic modulus - The ratio of the stress applied to a body or substance to the resulting strain within the elastic limits.
- Elastic modulus of concrete - Valid for normal weight concrete.
- Energy - Never created or destroyed, First Law of Thermodynamics, but it can be transferred from one object to another.
- Equilibrium - When all the net external forces that act upon an object are balanced.
- Escape velocity - The minimum velocity required to leave a planet or moon or the minimum velocity to overcome the pull of gravity.
- First moment of area - The measurement of a shape's area cross-section relative to an axis, located in space.
- First moment of inertia - See first moment of area
- Flotation - A process similar to aeration in that gas (typically air) is induced or dissolved to aid in "floating" oil and suspended solids so they can be separated mechanically.
- Fluid pressure at depth - The pressure exerted on a fluid depends only on the depth of the fluid.
- Force exerted by contracting or stretching a material - Any strain exerted on a material causes an internal elastic stress.
- Fresh air - Air taken from outdoors.
- g-force - See gravitational force
- Gas oil ratio - When oil is brought to surface conditions it is usual for some gas to come out of solution. The ratio of a given volume of gas at standard pressure and temperature (STP) to a given volume of produced oil.
- Graham's law of effusion - See Graham's law
- Gravitation - See gravity
- Gravitational force - A force (force per unit mass) equal to one unit of gravity that is multiplied during a rapid change in direction or velocity
- Gravity - A force pulling togeather all matter.
Gravity scale - See API gravity
- Impact resistance - Ability to withstand mechanical blows or shock without damage seriously affecting the effectiveness of the material or system.
- Impact Strength - Resistance or mechanical energy absorbed by a material to such shocks as dropping and hard blows.
Impulse - A change in momentum of an mass when a force is applied.
Impulse with time - A change in momentum of an mass when a force is applied.
- Initial length -
- Instantaneous acceleration - The acceleration at a particular moment in time along its path.
- Moment of momentum - See angular momentum
- Rotational acceleration - See angular acceleration
- Rotational momentum - See angular momentum
- Specific mass - See density
- Volumetric mass density - See density