Classical Mechanics
Classical mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with the motion of bodies in accordance with the general principles by Isaac Newton's laws of mechanics. Classical mechanics describes the motion of objects larger than a molecule and smaller than a planet, close to room temperature and going at speeds significantly slower than the speed of light. Classical mechanics gives accurate results as long as it is limited to large objects and the speeds less than the speed of light.
Classical mechanics Glossary
 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
A
 Abrasion  The destruction of a material caused by scraping or rubbing against a rough, hard surface.
 Abrasion resistance  The ability to withstand scuffing, scratching, rubbing or deterioration due to physical contact.
 Abrasive  A material that is able to remove the surface of another material.
 Absolute roughness  A measure of the roughness of the inside of a flowing pipe.
 Absolute vacuum  Contains no matter and can not be achieved.
 Acceleration  The rate of change of velocity. Whenever a mass experiences a force, an acceleration is acting.
 Acceleration due to gravity  See gravitational acceleration

Acceleration from force  The mass and the net forces acting on the object.
 Acceleration of gravity  See gravitational acceleration
 Affinity laws  Express the mathematical relationship between the several variables involved in pump performance.
 Air resistance  A force that opposes an object as it moves through the air.
 Angular acceleration  The rate at which the angle velocity changes with respect to time.
 Angular deflection  When a flex connector is bent on it's centerline. One end of the hose assembly is deflected or bent with the other end remaining parallel.
 Angular displacement  The angle through which a body moves in a circular path.

Angular momentum  How much an object is rotating around a fixed point.
 Angular momentum of an object with linear momentum  The porportion of the average net torque and the time interval the torque is applied to.
 Angular velocity  , abbreviated as \(\omega\) (Greek symbol omega) or \(v_a\), also called angular speed, is the speed that an object moves through an angle, θ. The calculation below calculates ω but does not calculate the relative velocity of a point as it moves throughout the curve.
 Angular speed  See angular velocity

Angular velocity of a rolling sphere  Without slipping is the velocity of a point on the circumference (relative to the center of the sphere), divided by the radius of the sphere.

API gravity  If a fluids API gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on water; if less than 10, it is heavier and sinks.
 Applied force  Can come from different types of forces, one of them could be Newton's Second Law.
 Atmospheric pressure  The pressure exerted upon the earth's surface by the air because of the gravitational attraction of the earth.
 Average acceleration  The change of velocity over an elapsed amount of time. Whereas, instantaneous accleration is the change of velocity at a specific point in time.
 Average angular acceleration  The average rate at which the angle velocity changes with respect to time.
 Average angular velocity change in velocity  When an object makes changes in its angular velocity at different times that is an average angular velocity of any given velocities.
 Average velovity change in velovity  When an object make changes in its velocity at different times that is an average velocity of any given velocities.
 Axial deflection  When a flex connector is compressed or stretched on it's centerline which usually occurs from the change in temperature.
 Axial force  The force acting parallel to the longitudinal xaxis.

Axial stiffness  The ratio of the axlal load to axial deflection. An axial load happens when a force is applied parallel to the axis of another object.
B
 Beam shear stress  The horizontal shear stress of a beam.
 Breakaway torque  The torque necessary to put into reverse rotation a bolt that has not been tightened.
 Breakloose torque  The torque required to effect reverse rotation when a prestressed threaded assembly is loosened.
 Brinell hardness number  A value assigned to the hardness of metals and alloys.
C

Centrifugal force  When a force pushes away from the center of a circle, but this does not really exist.
 Centripetal acceleration  The change in the velocity, which is a vector, either in speed or direction as an object makes its way around a circular path.
 Change in angular momentum  The porportion of the average net torque and the time interval the torque is applied to.
 Characteristic length  The scale of a physical system.
 Characteristic velocity  Measure the effectiveness of the combustion of a rocket engine at high temperature and pressure, seperate from nozzle performance.
 Circular velocity  The velocity at which an object moves around a circle with a given radius.
 Collinear force  All the forces share the same line of action.
 Column buckling stress  The allowable buckling stress of a column.
 Concurrent force  All of the forces act at the same point.
 Constant acceleration  The constant rate in a straight line at which the velocity changes with respect to time.
 Constant angular acceleration  An object is the constant rate at which the angle velocity changes with respect to time.
 Coplannar parallel force  The forces can be in the same or opposite direction and are on the same plane.
 Cyclic deflection  The repeated change in temperature or vibration.
 Cylinder axial stress  The longitudinal stress parallel to the axis along a cylinder or pipe having both ends closed due to internal pressure.
 Cylinder hoop stress  The circumference stress in a cylinder of pipe having both ends closed due to internal pressure.
D

Deflection  The change in the position of something from zero or from its normal position.

Deformation  Measured by how much an object is deformed from its origional dimensions.

Degradation  A deleterious change in the physical properties evidenced by impairment of these properties.
 Deionization  The process which removes soluble matter from water by by ion exchange using natural or synthetic resins.
 Density  The ratio of the amount of matter in an object compared to its volume.

Density of an ideal gas  Greatly affected by pressure.
 Density of material due to temperature 
 Differential  The quantitative difference between two or more forces, pressure, time, etc.
 Diffusion  The spread of gases, liquids, or solids from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
 Displacement  The change in position.

Displacement power  The amount of power required to displace an object a certain distance over time with a known force.
 Drag coefficient  See air resistance
E
 Efficiency  Expressed in percentage and always less than 100%.
 Elastic modulus  The ratio of the stress applied to a body or substance to the resulting strain within the elastic limits.
 Elastic modulus of concrete  Valid for normal weight concrete.

Elasticity  Measures the stiffness of an elastic material.
 Energy  Never created or destroyed, First Law of Thermodynamics, but it can be transferred from one object to another.
 Equilibrium  When all the net external forces that act upon an object are balanced.
 Escape velocity  The minimum velocity required to leave a planet or moon or the minimum velocity to overcome the pull of gravity.
F
 First moment of area  The measurement of a shape's area crosssection relative to an axis, located in space.
 First moment of inertia  See first moment of area
 Flotation  A process similar to aeration in that gas (typically air) is induced or dissolved to aid in "floating" oil and suspended solids so they can be separated mechanically.
 Fluid pressure at depth  The pressure exerted on a fluid depends only on the depth of the fluid.
 Force exerted by contracting or stretching a material  Any strain exerted on a material causes an internal elastic stress.
 Fresh air  Air taken from outdoors.
G
 gforce  See gravitational force
 Gas oil ratio  When oil is brought to surface conditions it is usual for some gas to come out of solution. The ratio of a given volume of gas at standard pressure and temperature (STP) to a given volume of produced oil.

Graham's law  The rate at which gases disperse is inversely proportional to the square root of their mass.
 Graham's law of effusion  See Graham's law
 Gravitation  See gravity
 Gravitational acceleration  The force on an object caused only by gravity.
 Gravitational force  A force (force per unit mass) equal to one unit of gravity that is multiplied during a rapid change in direction or velocity

Gravitational mass  Measured by comparing the force of gravity of an unknown mass to the force of gravity of a known mass.
 Gravity  A force pulling togeather all matter.

Gravity scale  See API gravity
H
I
 Impact resistance  Ability to withstand mechanical blows or shock without damage seriously affecting the effectiveness of the material or system.
 Impact Strength  Resistance or mechanical energy absorbed by a material to such shocks as dropping and hard blows.

Impulse  A change in momentum of an mass when a force is applied.

Impulse with time  A change in momentum of an mass when a force is applied.
 Initial length 
 Initial velocity  The starting point at which motion begins.
 Instantaneous acceleration  The acceleration at a particular moment in time along its path.
J
K
L
M
 Moment of momentum  See angular momentum
N
O
P
Q
R
 Rotational acceleration  See angular acceleration
 Rotational momentum  See angular momentum
S
 Specific mass  See density
T
U
V
 Volumetric mass density  See density
W
X
Y
Z