Classical Mechanics

classical mechanics banner 3Classical mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with the motion of bodies in accordance with the general principles by Isaac Newton's laws of mechanics.  Classical mechanics describes the motion of objects larger than a molecule and smaller than a planet, close to room temperature and going at speeds significantly slower than the speed of light.  Classical mechanics gives accurate results as long as it is limited to large objects and the speeds less than the speed of light.

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Classical mechanics Glossary


  • Abrasion  -  The destruction of a material caused by scraping or rubbing against a rough, hard surface.
  • Abrasion resistance  -  The ability to withstand scuffing, scratching, rubbing or deterioration due to physical contact.
  • Abrasive  -  A material that is able to remove the surface of another material.
  • Absolute vacuum  -  Contains no matter and can not be achieved.
  • Acceleration  -  The rate of change of velocity.  Whenever a mass experiences a force, an acceleration is acting.
  • Affinity laws  -  Express the mathematical relationship between the several variables involved in pump performance.
  • Angular deflection  -  When a flex connector is bent on it's centerline.  One end of the hose assembly is deflected or bent with the other end remaining parallel.
  • Angular velocity  -  , abbreviated as \(\omega\) (Greek symbol omega) or \(v_a\), also called angular speed, is the speed that an object moves through an angle, θ.  The calculation below calculates ω but does not calculate the relative velocity of a point as it moves throughout the curve.
  • Average acceleration  -  The change of velocity over an elapsed amount of time.  Whereas, instantaneous accleration is the change of velocity at a specific point in time.
  • Axial force  -  The force acting parallel to the longitudinal x-axis.
  • Axial stiffness  -  The ratio of the axlal load to axial deflection.  An axial load happens when a force is applied parallel to the axis of another object.


  • Breakaway torque  -  The torque necessary to put into reverse rotation a bolt that has not been tightened.
  • Breakloose torque  -  The torque required to effect reverse rotation when a pre-stressed threaded assembly is loosened.


  • Centrifugal force  -  When a force pushes away from the center of a circle, but this does not really exist.

  • Centripetal acceleration  -  The change in the velocity, which is a vector, either in speed or direction as an object makes its way around a circular path.
  • Characteristic velocity  -  Measure the effectiveness of the combustion of a rocket engine at high temperature and pressure, seperate from nozzle performance.
  • Circular velocity  -  The velocity at which an object moves around a circle with a given radius.
  • Constant acceleration  -  The constant rate in a straight line at which the velocity changes with respect to time.


  • Deflection  -  The change in the position of something from zero or from its normal position.

  • Deformation  -  Measured by how much an object is deformed from its origional dimensions.

  • Degradation  -  A deleterious change in the physical properties evidenced by impairment of these properties.

  • Deionization  -  The process which removes soluble matter from water by by ion exchange using natural or synthetic resins.
  • Diffusion  -  The spread of gases, liquids, or solids from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
  • Displacement  -  The change in position.
  • Displacement power  -  The amount of power required to displace an object a certain distance over time with a known force.


  • Efficiency  -  Expressed in percentage and always less than 100%.
  • Elastic modulus  -  The ratio of the stress applied to a body or substance to the resulting strain within the elastic limits.
  • Equilibrium  -  When all the net external forces that act upon an object are balanced.
  • Escape velocity  -  The minimum velocity required to leave a planet or moon or the minimum velocity to overcome the pull of gravity.


  • Flotation  -  A process similar to aeration in that gas (typically air) is induced or dissolved to aid in "floating" oil and suspended solids so they can be separated mechanically.
  • Force  -  The push or pull of an object resulting in a change from rest or motion.
  • Fresh air  -  Air taken from outdoors.


  • Gas oil ratio  -  When oil is brought to surface conditions it is usual for some gas to come out of solution.  The ratio of a given volume of gas at standard pressure and temperature (STP) to a given volume of produced oil.
  • Graham's law  -  The rate at which gases disperse is inversely proportional to the square root of their mass.

  • Graham's law of effusion  -  See Graham's law



  • Impact resistance  -  Ability to withstand mechanical blows or shock without damage seriously affecting the effectiveness of the material or system.
  • Impact Strength  -  Resistance or mechanical energy absorbed by a material to such shocks as dropping and hard blows.
  • Impulse  -  A change in momentum of an mass when a force is applied.

  • Impulse with time  -  A change in momentum of an mass when a force is applied.

  • Initial length  -














  • Volumetric mass density  -  See density






Display #
Impulse Velocity
Abrasion Resistance
Absolute Roughness